Tag: victorian

A Victorian Lady’s Guide to Fashion and Beauty, Book Review

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A Victorian Lady’s Guide to Fashion and Beauty by Mimi Matthews covers the course of women’s fashion and beauty changes from the 1840s through the 1890s, basically the length of Queen Victoria’s reign and influence. The book speaks to a lot of what initially drew me into researching the period of 1880-1930 in terms of the dramatic changes from restrictive, complex clothing and social customs to riding bicycles and wearing looser, linear garments without even a corset for shaping (or at least without the appearance of one).

I like the opening dichotomy of the book, “Though a young and eventually transformative queen had ascended the British throne in 1837, ordinary women of the 1840s had very little freedom of their own” (Matthews, 3).  This would largely remain true throughout the reign of Queen Victoria. Women at this time anticipated that they would need assistance just to put on their clothing (which is why the closures were typically in the back) let alone doing much of anything on their own without a chaperone.

Part I details silhouettes, the types of fabrics used, appropriate undergarments, millinery, footwear, outerwear, accessories, jewelry, and for which time of day and activity these items would have been appropriate. References to different lady’s magazines are made throughout and builds confidence in the reader as to how these distinctions are being made. It also mentions the Victorian Dress Reform movement and technological advancements in sewing and dressmaking in the 1850s; the exploitative nature of the garment industry and the impact of the American Civil War in the 1860s; the fashion inspirations from nature in the 1870s; the free-flowing, Aesthetic dress movement, Eastern-Asian influence on fashions, and the black evening dresses of the 1880s; and the New Woman of the 1890s.

I appreciated that Matthews includes a caricature (below) from Punch in 1895. I think today it might be easy to assume that fashions of the previous decades were always taken seriously, even if they seem outlandish to us today, and this is a great example of how – no matter the decade – everyone is a fashion critic. Sleeves became enormous in the 1890s and Punch has no issue poking fun at this style.

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From page 75 in A Victorian Lady’s Guide. Originally shown in Punch, Or the London Charivari, 1895.

I like Matthews’ systematic approach to detailing elements within each period. Although for some fashionable elements, of course, they did not neatly occur with the specific years of a decade (especially thinking of the two bustle periods), I think this is still a sensible way to group these styles.

Part II discusses “What to Wear and When to Wear It.” The distinctions made during the Victorian period between what and when to wear certain ensembles can be difficult for us to comprehend today. Not only were there different kinds of dress for different times of the day, you would never, for instance, wear the same outfit for “walking” as you would for a “visiting” dress, though both occasions might take place during the afternoon. These inherent social rules were very clear and understood at the time, though they began to break down at the turn of the century.

I particularly enjoyed the chapter on Holiday Fashion within Part II, as this is something I have not studied very much myself. Matthews writes that the seaside costumes for most of the Victorian period were similar to walking costumes, and their fashionable details changed through the decades as walking costumes did in terms of silhouette, differing mainly in terms of fabric. It makes sense that the seaside costumes would resemble the walking costumes considering that a lady was primarily meant to enjoy the seaside by sight and walking.  She might, however, wish to bathe, and bathing machines did later develop for the purpose of bathing, not to be confused with the athletic activity of swimming. This, of course, required a bathing costume, though most magazines advised a lady not to let herself be seen in this outfit (hence the bathing machine).

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A lace seaside costume with lace-trimmed parasol meant to be worn while walking on the shore, from page 97 in Victorian Lady’s Guide. (Freja: Illustrerad Skandinavisk Modetidning, 1882. Nordic Museum, Sweden).

Along with further details on types of sportswear, dress for different types of rites of passage are mentioned like marriage, maternity wear, and mourning. I think mourning wear from this period is notably complex and was perhaps oversimplified in this brief section, but all of the important points were covered.

Part III covers Victorian beauty, beginning the hair, both care and style changes through the decades, skin care, and cosmetics. It can be both interesting as a little bizarre reading some of the recommendations from this period! Make-up was still largely looked upon with disdain by the end of the 19th century, meant for the likes of actresses and prostitutes, but a lady might still respectably use face powder, cheek rouge, lip salve, and perfume in moderation. Matthews mentions some of the natural ways a lady might stain her cheeks red (hopefully without arousing suspicion that she had done so) by “strawberry juice, crushed geranium leaves, and rubbing one’s cheeks with a red-coloured flannel” (p143).  Matthews makes note of the home remedies some ladies would use along with recipes provided from lady’s and “domestic” magazines, with the understanding that these methods were meant to be used discretely, otherwise risking ridicule or comparison to a lady of the night.

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A perfectly lady-like product from page 134 in A Victorian Lady’s Guide, Advertisement for Pears Soap, 1886.

Overall, I enjoyed reading this book and would recommend it as an excellent reference tool for fashion historians or as an introductory book to the period for those who are new to learning about this information.

The way the information is blocked by decade and concisely organized makes it easy to understand or reference the information at a glance. Matthews’ coverage of the period is detailed in its understanding of the full spectrum of fashion and beauty and seems to be very well researched. Mimi Matthews herself researches and writes on all aspects of the 19th century and it shows in reading her research here. The book is written so that it is palatable enough for someone new to this period, but also provides details from firsthand sources, like lady’s magazines and other material from the 19th century that provides a depth to the writing. Well researched and worth a read!

Matthews, Mimi. A Victorian Lady’s Guide to Fashion and Beauty. South Yorkshire: Pen and Sword Books Ltd, 2018.

 

-Danielle Morrin

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Little Ladies: Victorian Fashion Dolls and the Feminine Ideal; Exhibit Review

Little Ladies: Victorian Fashion Dolls and the Feminine Ideal; Exhibit Review

Currently at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, there’s a lot of buzz surrounding the Fabulous Fashion: From Dior’s New Look to Now exhibit. Perhaps less known is Little Ladies: Victorian Fashion Dolls and the Feminine Ideal exhibit, on view now through March 3, 2019, curated by Kristina Haugland.

Little Ladies proved to be a hidden gem (and also more closely in line with the FFF timeline). Although most of the pieces date around the 1870s, many of the ideals and pieces themselves would have still been relevant and used in the 1880s, the beginning of the FFF area of study, though some of the silhouettes would have changed.

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“Miss Marie Antoinette” Fashion Doll’s trunk, clothing, and accessories, 1870s, France

The exhibit makes the point that these dolls were instructional in the sense that they provided young girls with what to expect in marriage and coming years. Beautifully ornate and detailed, the dolls provided a counterpart to written materials on how a lady should act, what she should wear during very specific times of day (down to the handkerchief placed in her pocket and the bustle under her skirt), and the realms in which she should primarily occupy herself.

Continue reading “Little Ladies: Victorian Fashion Dolls and the Feminine Ideal; Exhibit Review”

The Origins of Mackintosh

This month I am highlighting the invention of a new product in the 19th century. Have you ever used the term mackintosh to describe a coat? I’ve used the term myself and was curious about the origins.

Jordan Marsh Mackintosh
No. 64. The Melba, a very fine all-wool mackintosh with wool plaid lining and velvet collar, very full sweep of cajie and skirt; colors, blue, black, green, and brown. . . . $5. No. 65. Misses all-wool double texture mackintosh, two full capes and velvet collar; colors,blue and brown mixture $3.75.  Jordan, Marsh and Company, 1897, Winterthur Museum Library via Wikimedia Commons.

In this case, the product is actually mackintosh fabric which would be used in constructing the coat, although today the term is often synonymous with raincoat. The fabric is rubber coated and prevents rain water from penetrating its surface. In the Journal of Education in 1907, contributor R. W. Wallace wrote,

“If Charles Goodyear – the father of the rubber industry in America – could visit one of the great rubber factories of the country to-day, he would be astounded at the phenomenal development of the industry […]. To so many uses is rubber put to-day, that the standing problem in the business world on both sides of the Atlantic is how to get enough of the raw material to meet the ever-enlarging demand for rubber goods. There are indispensable to modern life in a thousand ways, contributing to its protection and comfort in more forms than one could easily catalog.”[1]

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Colette: Fashion through the Eyes of an early 20th Century French Novelist

While many French patriots are familiar with this name, Colette is unfortunately not well-known as an author and icon outside of France. Many attribute this to the difficulty of translating her books into English and other languages, as some of the inherent poetry and meaning is lost or comes across awkwardly in another language.

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Colette ca. 1890. Unknown Photographer, [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

Continue reading “Colette: Fashion through the Eyes of an early 20th Century French Novelist”

A Stitch in Time: Clothing and Textiles of the Meadowlands 1890-1915

Exhibit open at the Meadowlands Museum now through September 29, 2018

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As you may have seen from my recent social media photos, I have been involved with this project for the Meadowlands Museum as a volunteer Curator and spoke last week at the Museum. This project was like a dream come true in terms of being able to curate my own exhibit on fashion history! What surprised me the most was that the more I (and the wonderful exhibition team) dug into the textile industry of this region, the more there was to find. And not just in bits and pieces — more like an avalanche of information!

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Me at the Museum for the Curatorial Talk on 6.2.2018. Behind me you can see a silk gown from 1904 (first made in 1888) and a silk plaid jacket from the late 19th century.

Continue reading “A Stitch in Time: Clothing and Textiles of the Meadowlands 1890-1915”