Category: Fabric Innovation

Silk Part 2: American Production & Japanese Products for the American Market

Silk Part 2: American Production & Japanese Products for the American Market

The second part of this two-part series on silk will focus on American production, particularly within New Jersey. If you haven’t read part 1 yet, you can read that Here. While New Jersey was not the only state to manufacture silk products during this time, a very large portion of the American silk industry was set in Paterson, NJ.

A silk cocoon and silk moths
Duran, Leo, 1883-, Raw Silk: A Practical Handbook for the Buyer, 1921, No restrictions, via Wikimedia Commons

As mentioned in the last post, silk production provided a unique opportunity for the Eastern and Western worlds to interchange with one another. While silk production had long been integral to societies in the East, long before the United States even became a country, the improvements of the industrial revolution soon catapulted the United States into the silk economy. The ancient Silk Road now evolved to conduct the export of raw silk across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to further connect the United States with the East.

Today New Jersey is not known for its textile production, but in the late-1800s and early 1900s this was a major industry in the area. Paterson in particular became known for its silk mills. Prior to silk, cotton had been produced in Paterson, but when cotton production moved to the Southern United States, the vacant mills were eventually refurbished for silk production. In 1915, the NJ Industrial Directory wrote, “Approximately one-third of this nation’s product of this beautiful [silk] fabric comes from the looms of New Jersey mills, and fully ninety percent of this great total is credited to Paterson. Upwards of 160 silk mills and dye houses, employing an army of operatives numbering nearly 30,000 men and women are now in operation”[1] Paterson was even referred to as the Silk City or the Lyons of America in the early 1900s.

Silk factories along the Passaic River in Paterson, NJ, including the Madison Silk Co.
Lewis Hine, 1937, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

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Silk Part 1: Japanese Production and Women’s Work

Silk Part 1: Japanese Production and Women’s Work

Silk was incredibly important around the turn of the century for many reasons. It was first cultivated and produced in China in the Neolithic period and later spread to Japan. The process of extracting silk from the silkworms is referred to as sericulture. You can read more about sericulture, silk history, and the Silk Road here and here.

While silk was produced in many other countries during this time, this post series will concentrate on Japanese and American silk production, as the two were intertwined and offered a rare opportunity for interaction. This first post of the 2-part series will discuss silk manufacture in Japan at the turn of the century, and the important role of women in the industry.

What is silk in its most basic form? A great description by Chris Heidenrich of the National Museum of American History says,”Silk is the filament a silkworm produces for its cocoon. The filament is finer than a human hair—it takes 10 filaments to make one thread. A pound of silk takes 3,000 cocoons.”

Silk cocoons, photograph, 2012, Yodgorlik (Souvenir) Silk Factory – Margilon – Uzbekistan, Adam Jones from Kelowna, BC, Canada, CC BY-SA 2.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Synthetic fibers were not yet widely available in this period prior to WWI, although early experimentation had begun. There was still a heavy reliance on actual silk fibers for a luxurious looking material. Silk was very important in terms of its beauty in fabric and a skilled labor force required to produce it.

The industrial revolution caused the production of silk to change but the labor involved still required more skill than wool or cotton fabric production. Major centers of silk fiber, silk fabric and silk trim production in the late 1800s and early 1900s were found in France and Italy in Europe; in China and Japan in Asia; and the United States did its fair share of silk production as well along the East Coast and in the South.

As to raw silk, Japan was producing over half of the world’s silk at the turn of the century and Asia reasserted its dominance in this market. Japanese women below ca. 1910, are reeling silk in small skeins and appear in their kimono robes with their hair kept long in the traditional manner.

Photographic glass-plate transparency; part of a set of color-tinted transparencies depicting life in Japan ca. 1910, University of Victoria Libraries from Victoria, Canada, No restrictions, via Wikimedia Commons

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Historic Speaker Series: Clothing and Textiles of the Meadowlands 1890-1915

Historic Speaker Series: Clothing and Textiles of the Meadowlands 1890-1915

This month, I gave a talk on Zoom as part of the Meadowlands Museum‘s Historic Speaker Series! This talk covered information from the 2018 exhibit at the Museum, A Stitch in Time: Clothing & Textiles of the Meadowlands,1890 to 1915.

A few highlights from the talk are shown in this month’s post for anyone who was not able to tune in virtually covering! The focus of the highlights is on bleacheries, silk production, and embroidery of the Meadowlands region.

The exhibit, and subsequent talk, is meant to emphasize the power and peak of the textile industry in Northern New Jersey during this period. While most might think of New York City as dominating the garment industry, Northern New Jersey’s silk production and embroidery work were unparalleled in the country at this time. NYC may have dominated the garment trade in terms of completing and selling finished garments, but Northern NJ was a giant in wool and silk fabric production, mechanized embroidery work, and played a significant role in other areas of textile and notion production. The exhibit and talk also bring to light some beautiful garments from the Museum’s collection and how these would have fit into the larger fashion picture, in terms of silhouette and style.

A close-up of the embroidery on this lingerie dress – discussed later in the post

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Seersucker History

Seersucker History

There’s been a heat wave moving across the Eastern U. S. this week which inspired this month’s post on a fabric that was designed for scorching weather. Feeling hot? Try some seersucker.

1200px-Seersucker01closeup
Closeup of seersucker. Peteski1 / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)

This fabric is undoubtedly more often associated with men but after finding a seersucker woman’s bodice in the MET’s collection I was curious to learn more. There are almost no examples of seersucker in women’s wear prior to 1940. Why is that?

Suit, cotton, American
Seersucker women’s jacket from the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s collection. American, ca. 1881, cotton, 1983.44.2a, b, https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/84116.

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The Origins of Mackintosh

This month I am highlighting the invention of a new product in the 19th century. Have you ever used the term mackintosh to describe a coat? I’ve used the term myself and was curious about the origins.

Jordan Marsh Mackintosh
No. 64. The Melba, a very fine all-wool mackintosh with wool plaid lining and velvet collar, very full sweep of cajie and skirt; colors, blue, black, green, and brown. . . . $5. No. 65. Misses all-wool double texture mackintosh, two full capes and velvet collar; colors,blue and brown mixture $3.75.  Jordan, Marsh and Company, 1897, Winterthur Museum Library via Wikimedia Commons.

In this case, the product is actually mackintosh fabric which would be used in constructing the coat, although today the term is often synonymous with raincoat. The fabric is rubber coated and prevents rain water from penetrating its surface. In the Journal of Education in 1907, contributor R. W. Wallace wrote,

“If Charles Goodyear – the father of the rubber industry in America – could visit one of the great rubber factories of the country to-day, he would be astounded at the phenomenal development of the industry […]. To so many uses is rubber put to-day, that the standing problem in the business world on both sides of the Atlantic is how to get enough of the raw material to meet the ever-enlarging demand for rubber goods. There are indispensable to modern life in a thousand ways, contributing to its protection and comfort in more forms than one could easily catalog.”[1]

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