In honor of women’s history month I’d like to take a moment to appreciate women who have done difficult athletic activities while in a skirt in the late 19th century and early 1900s, besides the fact that these were also taking place before much physical activity was encouraged for women.
While, in some cases, a very wide skirt may be advantageous, in others layers, length, or decoration would have been more likely to cause her to stumble, especially considering that these garments were not designed specifically for athletic wear and were modified versions of regular day wear. Many women would likely have worn some form of pants or bloomers under her skirts, but these were not usually visible and her garments still appeared to be traditionally feminine with a full length skirt over top.
1. Hiking Alongside Male Counterparts
The length of the skirt in 1900 was still deemed necessary to cover the ankles, so while the width of the skirt would likely not have inhibited movement, the length would likely have made inclines a little difficult. To be fair, however, it probably wasn’t much easier in a suit.
A Victorian Lady’s Guide to Fashion and Beauty by Mimi Matthews covers the course of women’s fashion and beauty changes from the 1840s through the 1890s, basically the length of Queen Victoria’s reign and influence. The book speaks to a lot of what initially drew me into researching the period of 1880-1930 in terms of the dramatic changes from restrictive, complex clothing and social customs to riding bicycles and wearing looser, linear garments without even a corset for shaping (or at least without the appearance of one).
I like the opening dichotomy of the book, “Though a young and eventually transformative queen had ascended the British throne in 1837, ordinary women of the 1840s had very little freedom of their own” (Matthews, 3). This would largely remain true throughout the reign of Queen Victoria. Women at this time anticipated that they would need assistance just to put on their clothing (which is why the closures were typically in the back) let alone doing much of anything on their own without a chaperone.
Part I details silhouettes, the types of fabrics used, appropriate undergarments, millinery, footwear, outerwear, accessories, jewelry, and for which time of day and activity these items would have been appropriate. References to different lady’s magazines are made throughout and builds confidence in the reader as to how these distinctions are being made. It also mentions the Victorian Dress Reform movement and technological advancements in sewing and dressmaking in the 1850s; the exploitative nature of the garment industry and the impact of the American Civil War in the 1860s; the fashion inspirations from nature in the 1870s; the free-flowing, Aesthetic dress movement, Eastern-Asian influence on fashions, and the black evening dresses of the 1880s; and the New Woman of the 1890s.
I appreciated that Matthews includes a caricature (below) from Punch in 1895. I think today it might be easy to assume that fashions of the previous decades were always taken seriously, even if they seem outlandish to us today, and this is a great example of how – no matter the decade – everyone is a fashion critic. Sleeves became enormous in the 1890s and Punch has no issue poking fun at this style.
I like Matthews’ systematic approach to detailing elements within each period. Although for some fashionable elements, of course, they did not neatly occur with the specific years of a decade (especially thinking of the two bustle periods), I think this is still a sensible way to group these styles.
Part II discusses “What to Wear and When to Wear It.” The distinctions made during the Victorian period between what and when to wear certain ensembles can be difficult for us to comprehend today. Not only were there different kinds of dress for different times of the day, you would never, for instance, wear the same outfit for “walking” as you would for a “visiting” dress, though both occasions might take place during the afternoon. These inherent social rules were very clear and understood at the time, though they began to break down at the turn of the century.
I particularly enjoyed the chapter on Holiday Fashion within Part II, as this is something I have not studied very much myself. Matthews writes that the seaside costumes for most of the Victorian period were similar to walking costumes, and their fashionable details changed through the decades as walking costumes did in terms of silhouette, differing mainly in terms of fabric. It makes sense that the seaside costumes would resemble the walking costumes considering that a lady was primarily meant to enjoy the seaside by sight and walking. She might, however, wish to bathe, and bathing machines did later develop for the purpose of bathing, not to be confused with the athletic activity of swimming. This, of course, required a bathing costume, though most magazines advised a lady not to let herself be seen in this outfit (hence the bathing machine).
Along with further details on types of sportswear, dress for different types of rites of passage are mentioned like marriage, maternity wear, and mourning. I think mourning wear from this period is notably complex and was perhaps oversimplified in this brief section, but all of the important points were covered.
Part III covers Victorian beauty, beginning the hair, both care and style changes through the decades, skin care, and cosmetics. It can be both interesting as a little bizarre reading some of the recommendations from this period! Make-up was still largely looked upon with disdain by the end of the 19th century, meant for the likes of actresses and prostitutes, but a lady might still respectably use face powder, cheek rouge, lip salve, and perfume in moderation. Matthews mentions some of the natural ways a lady might stain her cheeks red (hopefully without arousing suspicion that she had done so) by “strawberry juice, crushed geranium leaves, and rubbing one’s cheeks with a red-coloured flannel” (p143). Matthews makes note of the home remedies some ladies would use along with recipes provided from lady’s and “domestic” magazines, with the understanding that these methods were meant to be used discretely, otherwise risking ridicule or comparison to a lady of the night.
Overall, I enjoyed reading this book and would recommend it as an excellent reference tool for fashion historians or as an introductory book to the period for those who are new to learning about this information.
The way the information is blocked by decade and concisely organized makes it easy to understand or reference the information at a glance. Matthews’ coverage of the period is detailed in its understanding of the full spectrum of fashion and beauty and seems to be very well researched. Mimi Matthews herself researches and writes on all aspects of the 19th century and it shows in reading her research here. The book is written so that it is palatable enough for someone new to this period, but also provides details from firsthand sources, like lady’s magazines and other material from the 19th century that provides a depth to the writing. Well researched and worth a read!
Matthews, Mimi. A Victorian Lady’s Guide to Fashion and Beauty. South Yorkshire: Pen and Sword Books Ltd, 2018.
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Little Ladies proved to be a hidden gem (and also more closely in line with the FFF timeline). Although most of the pieces date around the 1870s, many of the ideals and pieces themselves would have still been relevant and used in the 1880s, the beginning of the FFF area of study, though some of the silhouettes would have changed.
The exhibit makes the point that these dolls were instructional in the sense that they provided young girls with what to expect in marriage and coming years. Beautifully ornate and detailed, the dolls provided a counterpart to written materials on how a lady should act, what she should wear during very specific times of day (down to the handkerchief placed in her pocket and the bustle under her skirt), and the realms in which she should primarily occupy herself.
Happy Holidays to all Femme Fashion Forward readers! I decided to dedicate this post to the holiday season, and admittedly, primarily Christmas. I thought it would be interesting to compare holiday covers for Vogue and Harper’s Baza(a)z throughout the FFF timeline (1880-1930), and inevitably, the seasonal messages that were shown for December on major fashion magazine covers during this period were geared towards the celebration of Christmas if a specific holiday was mentioned.
Vogue and Harper’s Baza(a)r would also specifically publish additional “Christmas Gift” or “Christmas” editions around December. For Vogue readers around 1911, an extra $0.25 could purchase this special gift guide that “Let Vogue do your Christmas Shopping,” as their ads proclaimed. Acting as a catalog, Vogue selected fashionable items from “the leading shops of New York,” and would deliver them to the reader as selected with no extra charge for delivery. A foreshadowing of Amazon Prime? Not to be outdone, Harper’s Bazaar offered a similar holiday guide issue and gift ordering service.
I hope in analyzing the stylistic details of these covers from Vogue and Harper’s Bazaar (and Bazar) there is something interesting for all to take away regardless of personal holiday celebrations, in terms of insight into the art world and society at large. Overall, I think you’ll enjoy the following fashion magazine covers for the month of December!
This month I am highlighting the invention of a new product in the 19th century. Have you ever used the term mackintosh to describe a coat? I’ve used the term myself and was curious about the origins.
In this case, the product is actually mackintosh fabric which would be used in constructing the coat, although today the term is often synonymous with raincoat. The fabric is rubber coated and prevents rain water from penetrating its surface. In the Journal of Education in 1907, contributor R. W. Wallace wrote,
“If Charles Goodyear – the father of the rubber industry in America – could visit one of the great rubber factories of the country to-day, he would be astounded at the phenomenal development of the industry […]. To so many uses is rubber put to-day, that the standing problem in the business world on both sides of the Atlantic is how to get enough of the raw material to meet the ever-enlarging demand for rubber goods. There are indispensable to modern life in a thousand ways, contributing to its protection and comfort in more forms than one could easily catalog.”