100th Anniversary of Women’s Suffrage : Brief History and Fascinating, Free Resources

This month FFF is honoring 100th anniversary of the 19th Amendment, which was ratified and then certified as an amendment on Aug. 26, 1920 in the United States. This post will cover American women, but if you’re curious about other countries for comparison, this site dates Europe’s suffrage timeline and offers a global suffrage timeline.

Of course, the history of American women’s suffrage is much more complex than this date alone. For one thing, many women voted before they were legally able to, like the three women below in 1917. Some were infamously arrested, like Susan B. Anthony, but others, like Mary Ann Shadd Cary (below), were successful.

Mary_Ann_Shadd
African American educator, writer, abolitionist, and lawyer. She was the first African American newspaper editor in North America and successfully voted before 1920. 1800s, National Archive of Canada, Unknown author / Public Domain

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Seersucker History

Seersucker History

There’s been a heat wave moving across the Eastern U. S. this week which inspired this month’s post on a fabric that was designed for scorching weather. Feeling hot? Try some seersucker.

1200px-Seersucker01closeup
Closeup of seersucker. Peteski1 / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)

This fabric is undoubtedly more often associated with men but after finding a seersucker woman’s bodice in the MET’s collection I was curious to learn more. There are almost no examples of seersucker in women’s wear prior to 1940. Why is that?

Suit, cotton, American
Seersucker women’s jacket from the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s collection. American, ca. 1881, cotton, 1983.44.2a, b, https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/84116.

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Elizabeth Keckley: White House Dressmaker and First Lady Confidante

Elizabeth Keckley: White House Dressmaker and First Lady Confidante

This month’s post reflects the pursuit of highlighting more stories from forward femmes of color going forward on FFF. The post will focus on an important African-American female from the 19th century, Elizabeth Keckley (1818-1907), though much of her story takes place a little earlier than the usual FFF timeline. Keckley was a former slave who ultimately became primary dressmaker and dear friend to Mary Todd Lincoln, wife of Abraham Lincoln, a confidante to Mary and the wives of politicians she dressed, as well as an activist. Against all odds, and being born into a nightmare of slavery, Keckley became a self-supporting dressmaker to some of Washington’s most influential women. As if that doesn’t already sound incredible enough, just wait to read more of the amazing details of Keckley’s life and her contributions to American society!

Elizabeth Keckley
Portrait from her memoir, Behind the Scenes, or, Thirty Years a Slave, and Four Years in the White House, ca. 1868

Fortunately for historians, Keckley’s memoir Behind the Scenes, or, Thirty Years a Slave, and Four Years in the White House, provides a great deal of information on her life. Unfortunately for Keckley, the memoir would ultimately drive a wedge between herself and her friend, former First Lady Mary Lincoln, upon its publication in 1868. The focus of this post is on Keckley’s contributions to fashion and her relationship with Mary Lincoln, but links are provided throughout the post for further reading on other details of Keckley’s life.

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The Red Lip Controversy: A Glimpse of Lipstick History

Picture1
Pushup tube lipstick. ca. 1920, French, Etsy

The controversy of red lips at the turn of the century is an interesting one. In the late 1800s and very early 1900s, Western women who took to making up their faces were considered to be of loose morals, either someone whose profession involved the stage or a prostitute. According to Mimi Mathews, author of A Victorian Lady’s Guide to Fashion and Beauty, “Queen Victoria herself denounced make-up as being ‘impolite,’” and this continued the established Victorian belief that makeup was a low form of trickery and/or sinister vanity.[1] The Manet painting below of the courtesan Nana caused an uproar at the time of its reveal. Not only is she in her underclothes within her boudoir, she is unabashedly applying makeup.

Manet_nana
Édouard Manet, 1877, oil painting, Public Domain

 

These associations with makeup began to change in the 20th century, albeit slowly. Prior to this time, lip color was applied by brush and would have been difficult to apply outside of the home. Due to the negative connotations with its use, if applied at all, it was done privately in the home and in natural colors that would not draw attention. Certainly not a bright red lip color! It was also not mass produced, so for the few brave enough to wear lip coloring or a lip salve, they would have concocted something at home (or their maid) and applied it as a paint. In the mid-1800s, they would have boiled suet (cow or sheep fat from the loin and kidney area) and lard with alkanet chips, and later in the 1890s, recipes using oil of almonds, wax, spermaceti, and alkanet root were used.[2] Varied recipes existed and changed throughout the years, but were always some combination of wax, oil, and color.

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Staying Home: 6 Fashion History Experiences from the Couch

Staying Home: 6 Fashion History Experiences from the Couch

For those looking to add some fashion history to their week after working hours (beyond shows and period films) here are some wonderful free options! As most of the United States is still under strict stay-at-home orders, as well as many other parts of the world, hopefully these virtual experiences can act as a stand-in for actual visits to museums, libraries, or other institutions for the time being.

Delivered straight to your laptop or smart device, this wide range of offerings will provide a way to engage with history from the safety of your home:


1. FIT’s Fashion History Timeline

Fashion History Timeline
screenshot by FFF, https://fashionhistory.fitnyc.edu/, 2020

Peruse the Fashion History Timeline on the Fashion Institute of Technology’s Website: https://fashionhistory.fitnyc.edu/

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